Lessons Learned. O_LIDefinitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy based on oxaliplatin and endostatin was effective with the objective response rate exceeding 80%, and the treatment-related toxicities were acceptable.
C_LIO_LIThe treatment compliance of the current combination was much higher, without significant reduction in survival outcomes, than historical reports.
Background.This phase II trial aimed at assessing the efficiency and safety of definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) using oxaliplatin (OHP) and endostatin in patients with inoperable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
Methods.Radiotherapy was delivered with a daily fraction of 2.0 Gy to a total dose of 60.0 Gy over 6 weeks. Endostatin and OHP were both intravenously administered at doses of 7.5 mg/m2 daily for 2 weeks and 135 mg/m2 on day 1, respectively, every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR).
Results.The analysis included 37 patients. The median age was 63 years (range: 49-71 years), and all patients were stage III-IVA. Of these patients, 97.3% (36/37) completed the dCRT course with an ORR of 83.8%, including 10 (27.0%) patients with complete response and 21 (56.8%) patients with partial response. The median overall survival (OS) time was 18.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.6-26.4) with a 2-year OS rate of 39.6% (95% CI: 0.202-0.590). The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 11.5 months (95% CI: 7.6-15.4) with a 2-year PFS rate of 20.2% (95% CI: 0.049-0.355). Grade 3 toxicities included esophagitis (five patients) and leukocytopenia (three patients). Grade 4 leukopenia was observed in one patient. Late toxicity was infrequent, and no treatment-related death occurred. Posttreatment dysphagia scores were significantly improved when compared with baseline (p < .001).
Conclusion.dCRT based on OHP and endostatin resulted in high treatment compliance with manageable toxicities. This combination resulted in encouraging ORR without compromising survival outcomes. It should be validated in future clinical studies.
Lessons Learned. O_LICoadministration of S-1 and paclitaxel in elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer showed favorable efficacy.
C_LIO_LICoadministration of S-1 and paclitaxel in elderly patients with advanced non-small lung cancer showed tolerable toxicity.
Background.Although monotherapy with cytotoxic agents including docetaxel or vinorelbine are recommended for elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the outcome is not satisfactory. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of S-1 and paclitaxel (PTX) as a first-line cotreatment in elderly patients with advanced NSCLC.
Methods.Oral S-1 was administered on days 1-14 every 3 weeks at 80, 100, and 120 mg per day for patients with body surface area < 1.25 m2, 1.25-1.5 m2, and > 1.5 m2, respectively. PTX was administered at 80 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8. The primary endpoint was response rate, and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety.
Results.Seventeen patients were enrolled with response and disease control rates of 47.1% and 88.2%, respectively. Median PFS and OS were 5.6 and 35.0 months, respectively. Hematological grade 3 or 4 toxicities included leukopenia (55.8%), neutropenia (52.9%), febrile neutropenia (11.8%), and anemia (11.8%). Nonhematological grade 3 toxicities included stomatitis (23.5%), diarrhea (5.9%), and interstitial lung disease (5.9%), and grade 5 toxicities included interstitial lung disease (5.9%).
Conclusion.This S-1 and PTX cotherapy dose and schedule showed satisfactory efficacy with mild toxicities in elderly patients with advanced NSCLC.
Lessons Learned. O_LIThe combination of bevacizumab with docetaxel-gemcitabine resulted in unacceptable toxicity, particularly a high rate of pulmonary toxicity (30%).
C_LIO_LIDespite promising efficacy, excessive toxicity of this regimen does not support its use in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer.
Background.Prior to immunotherapy, standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was platinum doublet chemotherapy. In a previous phase II study, docetaxel-gemcitabine demonstrated comparable efficacy and tolerability to platinum doublets. In this phase II trial, we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of adding bevacizumab to docetaxel- gemcitabine in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC.
Methods.Patients with untreated advanced nonsquamous NSCLC were treated with up to six cycles of docetaxel-gemcitabine-bevacizumab, followed by bevacizumab until progression. The primary endpoint for this study was 1-year progression-free survival (PFS); secondary endpoints were safety, overall response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS). The planned sample size was 46 patients.
Results.A total of 13 patients were enrolled and received a median of six cycles of chemotherapy and four cycles of bevacizumab. The treatment was poorly tolerated, with five patients requiring dose reduction and four discontinuing treatment for toxicity. Grade 3-5 nonhematologic toxicity was seen in 10 patients, and 4 (30%) were hospitalized with pulmonary toxicity possibly related to study drugs. At this point, enrollment was halted for safety concerns. The 12-month PFS was 8%. In 11 evaluable patients, ORR was 72%, median PFS 6 months, and median OS was 11 months.
Conclusion.Docetaxel, gemcitabine, and bevacizumab at this dose and schedule resulted in excessive toxicity. Despite promising efficacy, in light of efficacious and safe alternative therapies, this regimen should not be used to treat advanced NSCLC.
Lessons Learned. O_LIPharmacokinetic results underscore that the vorolanib (X-82) study design was successful without the need for further dose escalation beyond 400 mg once daily (q.d.).
C_LIO_LITherefore, the recommended dose of X-82 as a single agent in patients with advanced cancer is 400 mg q.d.
Background.Vorolanib (X-82) is a novel, oral, multikinase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor/platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor inhibitor that was developed on the same chemical scaffold as sunitinib, but designed to improve upon the safety profile while maintaining the efficacy of sunitinib. By targeting the VEGF and PDGF receptors, X-82 was expected to disrupt tumor angiogenesis and be active in a broad spectrum of solid tumors. Therefore, we determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and characterized the preliminary pharmacokinetics and clinical tumor response of X-82 as a single agent in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Methods.Adult patients with advanced solid tumors received X-82 as tablets or capsules (once daily [q.d.] or b.i.d.) every 4 weeks. Patients were evaluated for response every 8 weeks, and continued treatment until disease progression or intolerable toxicity.
Results.Fifty-two patients received study treatment in 17 cohorts. X-82 capsule dosing was as follows: cohorts 1-6 (20-400 mg q.d.) and cohorts 7-8 (140-200 mg b.i.d.). Patients in cohorts 9-17 received 50-800 mg q.d. tablet dosing. The median time on treatment was 58 days. X-82 blood pharmacokinetics appeared dose-independent with a t1/2 of 5.13 hours and 6.48 hours for capsule and tablet formulations, respectively. No apparent accumulation was observed after 21 days of daily dosing.
Conclusion.X-82 had a safety profile consistent with its mechanism of action. It has a short half-life and was well tolerated by most patients. Study enrollment ended prior to the determination of the MTD because of the apparent saturation of absorption at 400-800 mg. The recommended dose of X-82 as a single agent in patients with advanced cancer is 400 mg q.d.
Lessons Learned. O_LIResults are consistent with MBC-11 targeting and treating cancer-induced bone lesions by concentrating cytarabine and etidronate at the site of disease.
C_LIO_LIMBC-11 was well tolerated, with an maximum tolerated dose of 5 mg/kg per day and myelosuppression as the principal toxicity.
C_LIO_LITreatment significantly reduced cancer cell activity in over half of bone lesions detected at baseline.
C_LIO_LIMBC-11 pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters are consistent with the novel drug design goals, and encouraging results warrant further clinical development.
Background.MBC-11 is a first-in-class conjugate of the bone-targeting bisphosphonate etidronate covalently linked to the antimetabolite cytarabine (araC). This first-in-human phase I dose escalation study assessed safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), plasma pharmacokinetics, bone turnover, tumor biomarkers, and bone lesion activity by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) imaging.
Methods.Fifteen patients with advanced solid cancers and cancer-induced bone disease (CIBD) were treated with 0.5-10 mg/kg per day of MBC-11 administered daily for 5 days of every 4 weeks for up to four cycles.
Results.Grade 1-2 myelosuppression, involving all lineages, was the principal toxicity. Two of three patients treated with 10 mg/kg experienced dose-limiting grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia (adverse event [AE] duration [≤]5 days); the MTD was 5 mg/kg. Four of five patients with pretreatment elevations of the bone resorption marker TRAP5b (tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-5b) had persistent decrements. Six of 13 patients who reported baseline pain noted a reduction after MBC-11. 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging demonstrated partial metabolic responses in three patients and stable metabolic responses in three other patients. SUVmax (standard unit of emission normalized to total uptake) was reduced by at least 25% in 110 (52%) of 211 bone lesions. Significant activity was noted across all doses, and myelosuppression increased with dose.
Conclusion.At MBC-11 doses that were well tolerated, substantial reductions in metabolic activity of bone-associated cancer cells provide a foundation for further disease-directed efficacy studies.
Lessons Learned. O_LIModification of FOLFIRINOX significantly improves safety and tolerability in Chinese patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.
C_LIO_LIPatients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer benefit from neoadjuvant therapy and experience a much better survival than patients with upfront surgery.
Background.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of modified-FOLFIRINOX (mFOLFIRINOX) regimens in Chinese patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and to compare outcomes between patients with LAPC treated with mFOLFIRINOX-based neoadjuvant therapy (LAPC-N) and patients with LAPC who underwent upfront surgery (LAPC-S).
Methods.Forty-one patients with LAPC-N were enrolled prospectively. Imaging features, chemotherapy response, adverse events, perioperative complications, histology, and survival were analyzed. Seventy-four patients with resectable pancreatic cancer (RPC) (from April 2012 to November 2017) and 19 patients with LAPC-S (from April 2012 to March 2014) were set as observational cohorts, and data were collected retrospectively. LAPC-N patients with adequate response underwent surgical treatment, whereas continuous chemotherapy was given to LAPC-N patients who were not deemed resectable after treatment, and the response was re-evaluated every 2 months.
Results.Forty-one patients with LAPC received mFOLFIRINOX with a response rate of 37.1%. The most common severe adverse events were neutropenia and anemia. mFOLFIRINOX-based neoadjuvant therapy contributed to a remarkable decrease in CA19-9 level and tumor diameter. Fourteen LAPC-N patients underwent surgery (LAPC-N-S) after downstaging. Compared with LAPC-N-S cases, LAPC-S patients had longer operative time, more blood loss, and a higher risk of grade 5 complications. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of LAPC-N-S patients were 27.7 months and 19.3 months, respectively, which were similar to those of patients with RPC (30.0 months and 23.0 months) and much longer than those of patients with LAPC-S (8.9 months and 7.6 months), respectively.
Conclusion.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy such as the mFOLFIRINOX regimen can be recommended for Chinese patients with LAPC after dose modification. Patients with LAPC-N who underwent surgery obtained significantly improved survival compared with patients in the observational LAPC-S cohort, who did not undergo neoadjuvant therapy.
Lessons Learned. O_LIThe 5-fluorouracil, docetaxel, and nedaplatin (UDON) regimen was well tolerated and showed promising antitumor activity in terms of both objective response rate and survival for patients with advanced or recurrent esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the first-line setting.
C_LIO_LIUDON may be an optimal treatment option for patients with advanced esophageal cancer who are unfit for docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil regimens.
C_LIO_LIThe high response rate as well as the rapid and marked tumor shrinkage associated with UDON suggest that further evaluation of this regimen in the neoadjuvant setting is warranted.
Background.A phase II study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), docetaxel, and nedaplatin (UDON) combination therapy for untreated recurrent or metastatic esophageal cancer.
Methods.Patients received intravenous nedaplatin (90 mg/m2) on day 1, docetaxel (35 mg/m2) on days 1 and 15, and 5-fluorouracil (800 mg/m2) on days 1-5 of a 4-week cycle. The primary endpoint was response rate, with secondary endpoints including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), dysphagia score, and adverse events.
Results.Between March 2015 and July 2017, 23 patients were enrolled. Of 22 evaluable patients, 16 and 4 individuals experienced a partial response and stable disease, respectively, yielding a response rate of 72.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.8%-89.3%) and disease control rate of 90.9% (95% CI, 70.8%-98.9%). Median OS and PFS were 11.2 months (95% CI, 9.1 months to not reached) and 6.0 months (95% CI, 2.5-10.6 months), respectively. Eleven (64.7%) of the 17 patients with a primary lesion showed amelioration of dysphagia after treatment. Frequent adverse events of grade 3 or 4 included neutropenia (87.0%) and leukopenia (39.1%). Febrile neutropenia was observed in two patients (8.7%).
Conclusion.This phase II study demonstrated promising antitumor activity and good tolerability of UDON.
Lessons Learned. O_LIPatients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often have limited therapeutic responses to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, which is standard of care in advanced HCC. Targeting the activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) and VEGF pathways simultaneously by combining the ALK1 ligand trap dalantercept with sorafenib may result in more effective angiogenic blockade and delay tumor progression in patients with advanced HCC.
C_LIO_LIAlthough the combination was generally well tolerated, there was no additive antitumor activity with the combination of dalantercept plus sorafenib in patients with advanced HCC. No complete or partial responses were observed, and overall survival ranged from 1.9 to 23.3 months.
C_LIO_LIThese results suggest that, in this patient population, further development of the possible limited benefits of combination therapy with dalantercept plus sorafenib is not warranted.
Background.Targeting the activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways may result in more effective angiogenic blockade in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Methods.In this phase Ib study, patients with advanced HCC were enrolled to dose-escalation cohorts, starting at 0.6 mg/kg dalantercept subcutaneously every 3 weeks plus 400 mg sorafenib orally once daily, or to a dose expansion cohort. The primary objective was to determine the safety and tolerability and the dalantercept maximum tolerated dose (MTD) level. Secondary objectives were to assess the preliminary activity and the association of pharmacodynamic biomarkers with tumor response.
Results.A total of 21 patients were enrolled in the study. Five patients received 0.6 mg/kg dalantercept in the first dose escalation cohort. Based on the initial safety results, the dose level was de-escalated to 0.4 mg/kg in the second cohort (n = 6). The MTD was identified as 0.4 mg/kg and used for the dose expansion cohort (n = 10). At this dose level, the combination was generally well tolerated. Overall survival ranged from 1.9 to 23.3 months, and the best overall response was stable disease.
Conclusion.The addition of dalantercept to sorafenib did not improve antitumor activity in patients with HCC. The dalantercept program in this population was discontinued.
Lessons Learned. O_LIThe findings of this prospective, single-arm, phase II study showed that neoadjuvant erlotinib was well tolerated and might improve the radical resection rate in patients with stage IIIA-N2 epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
C_LIO_LIErlotinib shows promise as a neoadjuvant therapy option in this patient population.
C_LIO_LINext-generation sequencing may be useful for predicting outcomes with preoperative tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with NSCLC.
C_LIO_LILarge-scale randomized controlled trials investigating the role of TKIs in perioperative therapy, combining neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatments to enhance personalized therapy for patients in this precision medicine era, are warranted.
Background.Information on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as neoadjuvant therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is scarce. We evaluated whether neoadjuvant erlotinib improves operability and survival in patients with stage IIIA-N2 EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC.
Methods.We conducted a prospective, single-arm, phase II study. Patients received erlotinib 150 mg per day for 56 days in the neoadjuvant period. The primary endpoint was the radical resection rate.
Results.Nineteen patients were included in the final analysis. After erlotinib treatment, 14 patients underwent surgery. The radical resection rate was 68.4% (13/19) with a 21.1% (4/19) rate of pathological downstaging. The objective response rate was 42.1%; 89.5% (17/19) of patients achieved disease control, with a 10.3-month median disease-free survival among patients who underwent surgery. Among all 19 patients who received neoadjuvant therapy, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival were 11.2 and 51.6 months, respectively. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 36.8% (7/19) of patients, with the most common AE being rash (26.3%); 15.8% experienced grade 3/4 AEs. Quality of life (QoL) improvements were observed after treatment with erlotinib for almost all QoL assessments. Effects of TP53 mutation on prognosis were evaluated in eight patients with adequate tissue samples. Next-generation sequencing revealed that most patients had a TP53 gene mutation (7/8) in addition to an EGFR mutation. No TP53 mutation, or very low abundance, was associated with longer PFS (36 and 38 months, respectively), whereas high abundance was associated with short PFS (8 months).
Conclusion.Neoadjuvant erlotinib was well tolerated and may improve the radical resection rate in this patient population. Next-generation sequencing may predict outcomes with preoperative TKIs.
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